The five-factor model is comprised of five personality dimensions (OCEAN): Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism (the factor names vary a little among authors). The Big Five was originally derived in the 1970’s by two independent research teams (Paul Costa/Robert McCrae and Warren Norman/Lewis Goldberg). Both teams concluded that most human personality traits consist of five broad dimensions of personality, regardless of language or culture.
The factors are dimensions, not types, so people vary continuously on them, with most people falling in between the extremes. They are stable over a 45-year period beginning in young adulthood (Soldz & Vaillant, 1999) and are also genetic, at least in part.(Jang, McCrae, Angleitner, Riemann, & Livesley, 1998; Loehlin, McCrae, Costa, & John, 1998) which means you can either thank or blame your parents depending on your results.
LEARN ABOUT OCEAN
This short video explains and gives some good examples of each of the five dimensions.